Standards

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The first standards for fast pyrolysis oil have been developed by ASTM International. So far, two different grades have been defined. The difference between Garde D and G is only the maximum allowable ash and solids content.


ASTM D7544 for fast pyrolysis bio-oil

Property Unit min/max Grade G Grade D
HHV - Higher Heating Value MJ/kg min 15 15
Water content wt% max 30 30
Solids wt% max 2.5 0.25
Kinematic viscosity (40 °C) cSt max 125 125
Density at 20 °C kg/L 1.1 - 1.3 1.1 - 1.3
S Sulphur wt% max 0.05 0.05
Ash wt% max 0.25 0.15
pH - report report
Pour Point °C min -9 -9
Flash Point °C max 45 45