REACH registration

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To allow the production and import of fast pyrolysis liquid in the European Union a so-called REACH [1] registration is required [1]. The REACH registration dossier was prepared in 2013 conducted by Fortum (Finland)[2] . The dossier was submitted in November 2013 to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Within REACH different types of subtances can be distinguished:

  • Organic substances
  • inorganic substances
  • Substances of biological origin
  • Nano-materials
  • Articles

Furthermore one can distinguish Mono-Constituent Subtances, Multi-Constituent Subtances, or Substances with unknown or variable Composition (UVCB). The REACH definition [3] for a UVCB is Substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials cannot be sufficiently identified by their chemcial composition because:

  • the number of constituents is relatively large and/or
  • the composition is, to a significant part, unknown and/or
  • the variability of composition is relatively large or poorly predictable

Obviously, fast pyrolysis liquid is considered as a UVCB. A UCBV needs to be defined in terms of the process used to amke them and in terms of what characterisation can be achieved. The consortium decided on the following definition:

In REACH a substance is defined in a so-calle Substance Identity Profile (SIP). For Fast Pyrolysis Liquid this SIP is given in Table below [4]. The full registration dossier on Fast Pyrolysis Bio Oil (FPBO) can be found at the ECHA website [2]

Substance Identity Profile (SIP) for Fast pyrolysis Bio-oil
EC name Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil
EC Number Not available (sief spliited from EC number 302-678-6)
CAS name Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil
CAS number 1207435-39-9
IUPAC name Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil
Public name Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil
Origin Fast Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic Bio-oil
Definition Liquid condensate recovered by thermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass, at short hot vapour residence time (typically less than about 10 seconds) typically at between 450-600 C at near atmospheric pressure or below, in the absence of oxygen

Properties and composition of Fast pyrolysis Bio-oil
pH >2 - 3.5
Water content < 40 wt%
Ash Content < 0.5 wt%
Solids content < 5.0 wt%
Viscosity at 40 C < 200mm2
Density 1.1 - 1.3 kg/L
Organic Compounds
Formaldehyde < 0.5 wt%
Methanol < 3 wt%
Non-polar components
PAH13 < 35 ppm (0.0035 wt%)
Bentso[a]Pyrene < 0.01 wt% (100 ppm)
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene < 0.01 wt% (100 ppm)
Sum of Carc. 1B classified substances < 0.1 wt% (1,000 ppm)
Sum of Carc. 2 Classified substances < 1.0 wt% (10,000 ppm)


  1. REACH Compliance - The great challenge for globally acting enterprises, Susanne Kamptman, Wiley, 2013
  2. REACH registration of fast pyrolysis oil, Sara Kärki, PyNe Newsletter 32
  3. Chemical Risk Assessment± A manual for REACH, Peter Fisk Associates, Wiley 2014
  4. REACH registration of fast pyrolysis oil, Pia Saari, PyNe Newsletter 34