Considering design limitations limit the scale up of commercial scale fluid bed, ABRI-Tech started working with heated augers systems using a hot high density heat carried (e.g. metal beads, see picture on the right side). ABRI-Tech is a joint venture company between Advanced BioRefinery Inc. and Forespect Inc. (Canada). The system has evolved to the point where the company builds, for sale, 20 kg/d and 50 t/d. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) developed a fast pyrolysis reactor to convert straw to pyrolysis oil and char to serve as a high-energy slurry feedstock for entrained flow gasification (the ‘Bioliq Process’). The reactor design is adopted from the Lurgi-Ruhrgas twin screw mixer reactor that was developed decades ago for oil shale, tar sand and refinery vacuum residues (LR coking). Chopped biomass is mixed with hot sand in the double-screw reactor and decomposed to vapors and char. The hot sand loop is maintained pneumatically or mechanically. Heat transfer to the biomass particles takes place by intimate contact with a heat carrier, with no need for an inert carrier gas. A pilot plant has been erected for process demonstration along the whole process chain. The 2 MWth
fast pyrolysis plant is in operation since 2009; the five MWth gasifier, the hot gas cleaning section, and a gasoline synthesis via dimethylether are to be commissioned in 2012.