Analytical methods

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The properties of pyrolysis liquids are very different compared to fossil oils like crude oil, diesel, or fuel oil. One should be very careful with selecting the right analysis methods. Below a table of suitable analysis methods is given for different properties of fast pryolysis liquid [1].


Property Unit Typical Value Method
ASTM EN ISO DIN
Water content wt% 15 - 30 E203
pH - 2 - 3 E70
C - Carbon wt% (dry basis) 50-60 D5291
H - Hydrogen wt% (dry basis) 6 - 8 D5291
N - Nitrogen wt% (dry basis) < 0.5 D5291
S Sulphur wt% (dry basis) < 0.05 D5453 20846
O (Balance) wt% (dry basis) 47 - - -
HHV-Higher Heating Value MJ/kg 14 - 19 D240 51900
LHV - Lower Heating Value MJ/kg 13 - 18 D240 51900
TAN Total Acid Number mg KOH/g 70 - 100 D664
Density at 15 °C kg/m3 1,100 - 1,300 D4052 12185
Kinematic viscosity (40 °C) cSt 15 - 40 D445 3104
Pour Point °C -9 - (-36) D97 3016
Flash Point °C 40 - 110 D93B 2719
Sustained combustion - does not sustain 9038
MCR/CCR Carbon Residue wt% 15 - 25 D4530 - D189
Solids wt% < 1 D7579
Ash wt% < 0.3 6245
Na, K, Ca, Mg wt% (dry basis) <0.06 16476


References

  1. Anja Oasmaa, Bert van de Beld, Pia Saari, Douglas C. Elliott, Yrjö Solantausta, Norms, Standards & Legislation for Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils, 2015